Islamic Schools of Thought in Iran’s Constitution

The official religion of Iran is Islam and the Twelver Ja’fari school, and this principle will remain eternally immutable. Other Islamic schools, including the Hanafi, Shafi’i, Maliki, Hanbali, and Zaydi, are to be accorded full respect, and their followers are free to act in accordance with their own jurisprudence in performing their religious rites. These schools enjoy official status in matters pertaining to religious education, affairs of personal status (marriage, divorce, inheritance, and wills) and related litigation in courts of law. In regions of the country where Muslims following any one of these schools of fiqh constitute the majority, local regulations, within the bounds of the jurisdiction of local councils, are to be in accordance with the respective school of fiqh, without infringing upon the rights of the followers of other schools.

Based on the constitution muslims have these rights:

* Respect

* Freedom to perform their religious rituals

* Religious Education

* Official and regional status

* Political and official rights


In a country like Iran with so many ethnic and religious groups, mutual respect is one of the factors that keeps the country united and peaceful. Based on the Iranian constitution, the relation between different schools of thought should be of respect and brotherhood and to avoid division, disrespecting the holy symbols and figures of other schools is legally prohibited.

As an example, few years ago, Iran’s supreme leader issued a fatwa (religious statement) which strongly prohibits Muslims to disrespect Sunni sacred figures.

* Freedom to perform religious ceremonies

Based on Iran constitution, the followers of other Islamic schools and even the non muslim minorities recognized by law are allowed to freely practice and perform their religion.

* Religious education

Based on the Article 12 of Iran constitution, followers of Islamic schools have any right to religious education and government is responsible to provide them with the related facilities and services.

* Official status

In regions that the majority are followers of a particular Islamic school, the local laws and regulations have been given to them, including the City councils.

* Political & official rights

A. Freedom to found parties, political councils and Islamic organizations based on the article 26 of Iran Constitution

B. Membership in the Iranian parliament based on the article 64 of Iranian Constitution

C. Equal human, political, economical, social and cultural rights based on the Islamic laws and article 19 and 20 of Iranian Constitution

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